PenaPeristiwa

Hadapi Gempa dan Tsunami Sumatera, Ini Perlu Disiagakan

Penaku.ID – Gempa bumi dengan magnitudo (M)6,7 mengagetkan masyarakat di Pulau Nias, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Kekuatan gempa mengakibatkan guncangan kuat sehingga membuat masyarakat panik dan keluar rumah.

“Merespons potensi dampak bahaya, masyarakat membutuhkan kesiapsiagaan agar selamat,” kata Kepala Pusat Data, Informasi dan Komunikasi Kebencanaan BNPB, Dr. Raditya Jati, dilansir bnpb.go.id, kemarin.

Gempa bumi yang dapat terjadi sewaktu-waktu patut diwaspadai oleh masyarakat.

BNPB selalu mengimbau masyarakat untuk waspada dan siap siaga dalam menghadapi tak hanya gempa bumi tetapi juga tsunami.

“Masyarakat Pulau Nias dan sekitarnya memang berada di kawasan dengan potensi gempa bumi dan tsunami kelas sedang hingga tinggi,” ujar Raditya.

Salah satunya, lanjut dia, Gunung Sitoli. Kota dengan enam kecamatan ini, katanya, berada pada kategori sedang hingga tinggi potensi gempa bumi.

Sedangkan 4 kecamatan di kota ini, menurutnya, berada pada kategori yang sama untuk potensi bahaya tsunami. 

Kesiapsiagaan dalam menghadapi bahaya geologi ini, masih menurutnya, tidak terlepas dari catatan sejarah ratusan tahun silam.

“Berdasarkan Katalog Tsunami Indonesia Tahun 416 – 2018, sejumlah tsunami terjadi di barat daya Sumatera menunjukkan gempa bumi dan tsunami merupakan suatu keniscayaan,” katanya, seraya mencontohkan, pada periode 1800 – 1899 beberapa gempa besar memicu terjadinya tsunami.

Gempa M7,2 pada 1843, lanjut dia, mengakibatkan tsunami yang berdampak di Pulau Nias. 

Catatan BMKG menyebutkan, sekitar pukul 00.30 waktu setempat di Gunung Sitoli, sebuah gelombang pasang datang dari tenggara dengan suara yang mengerikan. Hampir seluruh pantai di Pulau Nias terkena gelombang tersebut.

Sebuah kampung bernama De Mego yang berjarak 2 km dari Gunung Sitoli tersapu seluruhnya.

Bahkan kapal-kapal ikan disungai digambarkan terbawa ke daratan sejauh 30 – 50 km dari tempat tambatan. 

Berselang 9 tahun, tepatnya 11 November 1852, gempa M6,8 memicu terjadinya tsunami. Wilayah pantai di Pulau Nias kembali terdampak gempa waktu itu. 

Selanjutnya pada 1861, gempa besar M8,5 yang terjadi di barat daya Sumatera memicu terjadinya tsunami.

Beberapa wilayah terdampak tsunami, seperti Pulau Nias dan sekitarnya. Berdasarkan BMKG, Gunung Sitoli mengalami serangan tsunami parah.

Dikutip dari katalog tsunami, awalnya air laut surut sejauh 32 m, kemudian kembali dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi dan menghancurkan sejumlah desa di pantai.

Peristiwa itu mengakibatkan banyak penduduk setempat meninggal dunia. Pada 1896 gempa bumi dengan M6,8 kembali mengguncang barat daya Sumatera, khususnya Pulau Nias.

Digambarkan pada tahun itu, sekitar satu jam pascagempa air bah datang dan 6 jam kemudian terjadi lebih dahsyat menerjang Gunung Sitoli. 

Gempa M6,7 yang terjadi Jumat (14/5/2021), pukul 13.33 WIB, juga dirasakan masyarakat di wilayah administrasi lain di Pulau Nias, yakni Kabupaten Kabupaten Nias, Nias Barat dan Nias Selatan.

Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) merilis parameter III – IV MMI di wilayah Kota Gunung Sitoli, Kabupaten Nias, Nias Barat dan Nias Selatan. Skala MMI atau Modified Mercalli Intesity merupakan satuan untuk mengukur kekuatan gempa.

Berdasarkan informasi BMKG, IV MMI mendeskripsikan gempa dirasakan banyak orang yang berada di dalam rumah dan beberapa orang di luar rumah, serta gerabah pecah, jendela dan pintu berderik dan dinding berbunyi. 

Raditya menuturkan, sejarah berulangnya gempa mendorong kesiapsiagaan nyata dari setiap individu dalam lingkup keluarga.

“Kesiapsiagaan menghadapi gempa bumi dan tsunami perlu dipersiapkan sejak dini oleh keluarga. Keluarga harus memiliki rencana kesiapsiagaan keluarga karena setiap keluarga memiliki karakteristik berbeda, seperti konstruksi bangunan rumah, kapasitas keluarga dalam kebencanaan, keadaan fisik setiap anggota keluarga atau lokasi rumah,” ujarnya. 

Rencana darurat keluarga, menurut dia, dapat disusun dengan panduan orang tua atau orang dewasa di dalam keluarga.

Berbagai informasi menjadi diskusi dan panduan bagi setiap anggota keluarga, misalnya potensi bahaya dan risiko yang ada di sekitar rumah, titik kumpul dan jalur evakuasi ke tempat yang lebih tinggi, penempatan perabot, hingga tas siaga bencana.

“Ingat, setiap keluarga memiliki tingkat bahaya dan risiko yang berbeda meskipun keluarga-keluarga dalam komunitas berada pada kawasan dengan potensi bahaya gempa dan tsunami dengan kategori sedang hingga tinggi,” katanya.

(awn)







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